Concept Of Intellectual Property In Islam And Western Law

Concept of property is the part and parcel of a structured society in this modern age. How the concept of property is viewed, determines the nature of society. These copy rights are well known phenomena of this age of modernization and of great impotence.

Intellectual property is defined as the specific legal rights over the property with is the result of one’s intellectual effort for example patent, trademark, industrial design and copy rights. It is the property of intangible or incorporeal nature.

In western intellectual law of property has attained significant importance and is a well accepted concept and it comes under the domain of personal property. But in Islamic law the concept of intellectual property is disputed.

In Islamic law this concept of intellectual property is the one on which no extensive work has been done and jurists are at dispute. Some of them consider it as the property and others do not. The main reason for the dispute is the nature of property as intellectual property is intangible, and has no physical existence.

Different Islamic schools of thoughts advocate their opinion of acceptance and non acceptance differently. The Hanfi school of thought do not accept the intellectual property as a property but the Shafi consider it as the property because they consider the usufruct and the benefit too as the property while the Hanifi’s only consider the corporeal property as the property.

The modern jurist has put the intellectual rights of property under the category of Haqooq-e-Urfiya( customary rights) and these are the rights which, according Mulana Taqi Usmani, are of such nature about which there is no proof found in sharia and the only basis of its recognition is the practice of these rights.

This is the time when this very concept of intellectual property is required to be defined and accepted. Importance of this very concept is inexorable at this stage of globalization. It is a challenge for the Muslim world to resolve this dispute of acceptance and non acceptance of intellectual property. Muslim jurists are greatly in need of ijtihad and ijma for the recognition of this concept undisputedly.

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Faith Schools and Indoctrination

The recent furore around the Islamist “takeover” of schools in Birmingham, UK has resulted in several schools being put in to Special Measures by OFSTED. There have been calls for action and there has been a spat between the Home Office and the Dept for Education over who knew what and when. Emotive language has been used, quoting staff as saying there was a “culture of fear” in the affected schools. There are also reports that the original letter raising these concerns was a fake and sent to stir up racial hatred!

However, even if it is true are we all getting hysterical because they are Islamic schools? What about Christian schools and other faith schools who teach their particular beliefs to impressionable and vulnerable children as though it is the only way?

In fact, why do we allow faith schools of any denomination at all?

Children should be taught a balanced curriculum agreed by experts to be what is required for the present-day. It should be based on facts and where it is not, it should be explicitly stated that this is what SOME people believe. Fine, teach the major religions, their origins and beliefs and allow children to experience the various facets and diversity that they bring. But do NOT portray what is being taught as fact because for every person who believes it there is at least another who believes something completely different.

This is where I have a problem with faith schools and I stress I am no expert on the school system but this is how it seems to me; they do not offer a balanced curriculum, they teach their view of religion – probably – to the exclusion of anything else. In fact I doubt very much that their pupils are told that many millions of people in the world do not follow any religion at all as they don’t believe in it.

They are effectively brainwashing children into their way of thinking. I am firmly of the view that, if religion has to be taught and I am not convinced that it does, then it is presented neutrally across the whole range, covering the major religions in equal measure, so that those receiving this education can assimilate knowledge and when they are old enough to make a decision they can do so with all the relevant information. I wonder if that happened, how many people would grow up choosing to have nothing to do with it!

ICD-10-CM – The New Medical Coding Challenge Arriving October 1, 2013

On October 1, 2013, the medical coding world as we know it, will awaken to a new and exciting challenge. The 14,000 ICD-9 medical codes that millions of physicians, medical facilities, and hospitals use, will increase to approximately 64,000 codes. With the extra 50,000 codes will come very specified disease diagnoses and the medical coding world will need to brush up on their coding guidelines, their medical terminology and their anatomy and physiology.

January 1, 2012, is the compliance date for the HIPAA 5010 (HIPAA X12 formats version 5010), which is a new format designed to regulate electronic transmissions of specific healthcare transactions. Any medical facility not in compliance will not be able to receive their reimbursements.

Are you ready for ICD-10? Good quality classes in medical terminology and anatomy and physiology will be worth the time and funds spent when you are able to find the new codes with ease.

What medical coding certification are you seeking? Have you made up your mind to seek the certification from the AHIMA (CCS) or from the AAPC (CPC)? Whichever one you choose, make sure you use the study guides for general information, but also, and most importantly, study the coding books depending on what test you are taking and what specialty you decide on. Know the different surgeries in each of the chapters of the CPT book. You can order some instructional coding books that give you an opportunity to practice coding with the answers in the back of the book. In-patient hospital and physician offices will need to know the E & M codes forward and backward. Learn how to find ICD codes quickly and learn where modifiers are needed. Familiarize yourself with the HCPCS codes. Check with coding associations and take practice tests to help you get ready to be tested. Get a good nights rest, eat a nourishing breakfast and go into the testing room with a positive attitude in becoming the next coding specialist.

Many medical coders are fortunate in finding medical coding jobs where they can work from home. What a dream to be able to work from home and not have to leave the house. After years of experience working in a facility, it is possible to find a medical coding job opportunity and work from home.

Medical coding is a very challenging profession. To succeed in medical coding, one must study medical terminology and anatomy and physiology. Being successful is not only knowing the medical language and where all of the body parts are, it is also important to know the government guidelines and to know how to match the medical necessity codes correctly to the procedure codes. The reward will not only be the provider reimbursement from submitting clean claims, but also the satisfaction of knowing that the challenges were met!